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Ponds and pools of Malta: past and present. 1999. In Boothby, J. (Ed.). Ponds and pond landscape of Europe, pp. 117—24. PondLife, Liverpool.


Malta is mostly limestone, and before the 1830s had much surface water: marshes, pools, ponds, rivers, springs, etc. Because of severe land drainage and abstraction, the island is now very dry, yet, surprisingly, some ponds remain. These are summer ponds in rivers; spring pools, natural and constructed; freshwater rock pools; and constructed water tanks, etc.