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Changing rivers and changing vegetation in the past half century. 1981. Proceedings Aquatic Weeds and their Control, 49—57.


River vegetation is determined by the habitat conditions of the river. When depth, flow, substrate etc are altered by changes in culture and management (e.g. disuse of mills and water meadows, increased land drainage), the plants, and so the problems created by these plants, alter also. Throughout Britain, many stretches of rivers have become shallower and swifter. Vegetation changes are poorly documented, due to a lack of early surveys. Recorded or deduced changes in vegetation increase or decrease flood hazards from plants depending on the precise habitat of the channel concerned.