Some aspects of the life history and autecology of Phragmites communis Trin.. 1973. Polskie Archiwum Hydrobiologia. 20, 79100.
Phragmites Adans. is widely distributed and variable. Variation in e.g. size and longevity of aerial stem and leaf is both environmental and genetic, though there is a genetic correlation between growth cycle and climate. Phragmites tolerates a wide range of water and soil regimes, but being sensitive to competition it tends to be limited by this in the drier and more eutrophic parts of its range. The optimum habitat conditions for germination and early establishment are more stringent than for the adult, and differ to the typical environment of the adult. Variation within and between populations is discussed in relation to population type, biotype and short-term and small scale differences in habitat.