The development and establishment of young plants of Phragmites communis Trin.. 1971. Annals of Botany. 35, 105972.
Establishment from seed of young plants of Phragmites communis Trin. is rare in Britain and Malta, partly because of poor germination, but also because seedlings are sensitive to unfavourable habitats. Frost, flooding, drought, and salt can all kill, or, if less severe, cause slow growth; slow growth also occurs in low light, cool weather, and low phosphate (in deficiencies that do not affect many peat species). Small plants from such habitats are easily killed by competition (e.g. shading) or by frost or flood in winter. Plants with c. 10 aerial shoots tolerate ordinary variations of habitat in Britain, and are considered to be viable units.