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The development of shoots in Phragmites communis Trin. 1969. Annals of Botany. 33, 695—709.


In aerial shoots of Phragmites communis Trin., final height, and often growth-rate, depend on the width of the emergent bud which determines the basal diameter of the mature stem. In the early stages there is internal competition for food reserves and smaller shoots may be harmed.

Growth is faster during the early phase of growth, and it is increased in wider buds, warmer weather, and more humid habitats. Any of these factors may be of over-riding importance, e.g. a summer-emerged shoot grows faster than a spring one of equal width. Minor fluctuations in environment have more effect early than later. New nodes develop more rapidly late in the year than early.