Stem types of Phragmites communis Trin.. 1969. Annals of Botany. 33, 12731, 1968.
The three usual stem types of Phragmites communis Trin. can be arranged in a maturation sequence. The horizontal rhizome is the juvenile type, responsible for renewing the stand; the vertical rhizome is the juvenile type, responsible for renewing the stand; the vertical rhizome is intermediate and bears the aerial shoots; and the aerial shoot is the mature type, photosynthesizing, potentially flowering, and short lived, but not normally capable of renewing the population. The difference between horizontal and vertical rhizomes appears to be determined internally, and that between vertical rhizomes and aerial shoots, by the environment.